Types of bone graft

ELIZ
Synthetic HA / TCP

AXOZ
Injectable TCP

REOs
Collagen HA / TCP composite

OSIQ
Injectable nano HA

Zeth
Human Tissue

It is important to understand verschillende common definitions used in bone repair:

Osteoconductive
Means That the bone substitute acts as a scaffold for new bone formation.
Osteoinductive
Means That the material acts to induce the cells to change into osteoblasts pleuripotential.
Osteogenic
refers to the formation of bone.

The orthopedic surgeon must first Assess the clinical situation That requires bone grafting and determining if there is an Osteogenic signals, if there are responding cells, if there is a matrix required to act as a scaffold, and if a vascular supply exists.

To decide on a type of graft to be used, you need to look at the amount of bone loss, the biomechanical requirements, the host biological potential, and the bioactive factors That can be provided. In the past, the surgeon could use either autogenous bone graft or allograft bone, All which acts like a scaffold. The allograft was either frozen or freeze-dried bone chips.

However, the newest advancement is to use bone graft (extenders) or substitutes for traditional bone graft material. In most trauma cases, autogenous bone graft is still the gold standard of treatment to fill defects.

AVAILABLE TYPES OF BONE GRAFT

Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) 
This is produced by acid extraction of bone, and has a variable amount of bone morphogenic protein (BMP). DBM is available as a gel, paste, putty, or powder, with no intrinsic strength, and is used as an adjunct for spinal fusion procedures. The commercial products are Zeth (KYERON) , Allo Matrix (Wright Medical Technology), or P Grafton (Osteotech). DBM is used clinically in revision hip and knee surgery together with cancellous bone chips to fill contained defects.
 
Ceramics
These synthetics are derived from synthetic or marine coral That is porous. These products are osteoconductive hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate and calcium phosphate, available as commercial ELIZ (KYERON) , Endobon (Biomet), OSIQ (KYERON) , Norian SRS (Synthes) and AXOZ (KYERON) . These materials are brittle, have variable resorption, and are Often used for the augmentation of fracture repair. OSIQ, Norian SRS and AXOZ are injectables.
The commercial products REOs (KYERON) and CopiOs (Zimmer) have the ceramics mixed with a collagen to make to product Also osteoinductive and less brittle.
 
Autologous Platelet Concentrates (APC)
This product is harvested from blood and has multiple growth factors That may be combined with a matrix to enhance bone formation. BMAC System (KYERON) can be used here, which is multi-biologic concentrate centrifuge.
 
Bone Marrow Cells
These cells are osteoinductive Because Of The mesenchymal cells That Are present; They should be combined with matrix to Stimulate bone formation. There is some interest in combining bone marrow cells with ceramics (ELIZ) , cancellous bone chips(Zeth) or a collagen-ceramic composite  (REOs) to fill contained defects in revision hip and knee arthroplasty. The BMAC System , a multi-biologic concentrate centrifuge, can be well used to concentrate regenerative cells in a point-of-care procedure Within 15 minutes.
 
Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)
BMP, All which has bone available for many years, is osteoconductive. BMP can cause bone formation in nonunions and spinal fusions in. The main issue associated with the use of BMP is to find a suitable carrier thatwill fill the void, be nonreactive, be biodegradable, and have some biomechanical properties. The other issue at the present time is the cost of BMP, which is about $ 3,000 per level or spinal fusion. In the treatment of tibial nonunions, there has leg Shown to be no difference with BMP Compared with autograft.